The contributing factors on J.D that might put her at risk to develop iron deficiency anemia

J.D. is a 37 years old white woman who presents to her gynecologist complaining of a 2-month history of intermenstrual bleeding, menorrhagia, increased urinary frequency, mild incontinence, extreme fatigue, and weakness. Her menstrual period occurs every 28 days and lately there have been 6 days of heavy flow and cramping. She denies abdominal distension, back-ache, and constipation. She has not had her usual energy levels since before her last pregnancy.

Past Medical History (PMH)

Upon reviewing her past medical history, the gynecologist notes that her patient is a G5P5with four pregnancies within four years, the last infant having been delivered vaginally four months ago. All five pregnancies were unremarkable and without delivery complications. All infants were born healthy. Patient history also reveals a 3-year history of osteoarthritis in the left knee, probably the result of sustaining significant trauma to her knee in an MVA when she was 9 years old. When asked what OTC medications she is currently taking for her pain and for how long she has been taking them, she reveals that she started taking ibuprofen, three tablets each day, about 2.5 years ago for her left knee. Due to a slowly progressive increase in pain and a loss of adequate relief with three tablets, she doubled the daily dose of ibuprofen. Upon the recommendation from her nurse practitioner and because long-term ibuprofen use can cause peptic ulcers, she began taking OTC omeprazole on a regular basis to prevent gastrointestinal bleeding. Patient history also reveals a 3-year history of HTN for which she is now being treated with a diuretic and a centrally acting antihypertensive drug. She has had no previous surgeries.

Case Study Questions

  1. Name the contributing factors on J.D that might put her at risk to develop iron deficiency anemia.
  2. Within the case study, describe the reasons why J.D. might be presenting constipation and or dehydration.
  3. Why Vitamin B12 and folic acid are important on the erythropoiesis? What abnormalities their deficiency might cause on the red blood cells?
  4. The gynecologist is suspecting that J.D. might be experiencing iron deficiency anemia.
    In order to support the diagnosis, list and describe the clinical symptoms that J.D. might have positive for Iron deficiency anemia.
  5. If the patient is diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia, what do you expect to find as signs of this type of anemia? List and describe.
  6. Labs results came back for the patient. Hb 10.2 g/dL; Hct 30.8%; Ferritin 9 ng/dL; red blood cells are smaller and paler in color than normal. Research list and describe for appropriate recommendations and treatments for J.D.

Submission Instructions:

  • Include both case studies in your post.
  • Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources. Your initial post is worth 8 points.

Contributing Factors and Risks for Iron Deficiency Anemia in J.D.

  1. Menstrual Blood Loss: J.D. experiences intermenstrual bleeding and menorrhagia, both of which can contribute significantly to iron loss, putting her at risk for iron deficiency anemia.
  2. Recent Pregnancy: Iron demands increase during pregnancy, and J.D. has had five pregnancies within four years, including one four months ago. This rapid succession of pregnancies may have depleted her iron stores.
  3. Chronic NSAID Use: J.D. has been taking ibuprofen for 2.5 years due to osteoarthritis, leading to chronic gastrointestinal blood loss. The addition of omeprazole may prevent bleeding but doesn’t address iron loss.
  4. Hypertension Treatment: The diuretic used in her hypertension treatment can contribute to dehydration, potentially exacerbating her anemia.
  5. Fatigue and Weakness: These symptoms, along with the reported heavy menstrual bleeding, are indicative of anemia.

Constipation and Dehydration in J.D.

  1. Chronic NSAID Use: Ibuprofen is known to cause gastrointestinal irritation and may contribute to constipation.
  2. Diuretic Use: The diuretic for hypertension can lead to increased urinary frequency and mild incontinence, potentially causing dehydration and exacerbating constipation.

Importance of Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Erythropoiesis

  1. Vitamin B12: Essential for DNA synthesis and maturation of red blood cells. Deficiency can lead to megaloblastic anemia, where RBCs are larger and immature.
  2. Folic Acid: Also crucial for DNA synthesis. Deficiency can cause megaloblastic anemia similar to B12 deficiency.

Clinical Symptoms of Iron Deficiency Anemia

  1. Fatigue and Weakness: Due to decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.
  2. Paleness: Resulting from reduced hemoglobin levels.
  3. Shortness of Breath: As the body compensates for reduced oxygen levels.
  4. Headache and Dizziness: Consequences of inadequate oxygen supply to the brain.

Signs of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Lab Results

  1. Low Hemoglobin (Hb) and Hematocrit (Hct): Indicate decreased red blood cell levels.
  2. Low Ferritin: Suggests depleted iron stores.
  3. Microcytic and Hypochromic Red Blood Cells: Smaller and paler than normal, reflecting reduced hemoglobin content.

Recommendations and Treatments for J.D.

  1. Iron Supplementation: Given her low ferritin levels, iron supplementation is essential to replenish iron stores.
  2. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Supplementation: If deficiencies are confirmed, these supplements can address megaloblastic anemia.
  3. Review of NSAID Use: Considering the chronic use of ibuprofen, alternative pain management strategies should be explored.
  4. Hydration Management: Addressing dehydration through adequate fluid intake and monitoring diuretic use.
  5. Periodic Monitoring: Regular follow-up to assess response to treatment and adjust medications accordingly.

In conclusion, J.D.’s case demonstrates a complex interplay of factors contributing to iron deficiency anemia, including menstrual bleeding, recent pregnancies, chronic NSAID use, and hypertension treatment. Comprehensive management involves addressing the underlying causes, correcting nutritional deficiencies, and monitoring for improvements. Regular follow-up and collaboration between the gynecologist and other healthcare providers are crucial for optimal patient care.

Complete Answer:

Get Instant Help in Homework Asap
Get Instant Help in Homework Asap
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -
Open chat
Hello 👋
Thank you for choosing our assignment help service!
How can I help you?