Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder

ADHD is a neurological illness that affects a variety of people. It’s a brain-functioning disorder caused by a neurodevelopmental abnormality. There are three forms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The first is Inattentive Presentation, in which people struggle to complete tasks, follow instructions, and pay attention to details. The second type is Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Presentation, in which people fidget and talk excessively. These people find it difficult to sit still for long periods of time. The third type is Combined Presentation, which includes both Inattentive and Hyperactive-Impulsive symptoms. The following symptoms are used to classify ADHD:

When a person has trouble concentrating, switching from one activity to another, or forgetting instructions, they are exhibiting inattention.

Impulsivity – such as a’short fuse,’ shouting over people, and being prone to accidents


Overactivity is defined as a state of continual restlessness and fidgeting.


Emotional management, social navigation, and sleep are all areas where people have problems.


Furthermore, research have revealed that the causes and risk factors for ADHD are unknown. They did, however, notice that genetics plays a significant effect. Other probable causes and risk factors for ADHD include:


Injuries to the brain


Tobacco and alcohol use during pregnancy are both harmful to a woman’s health.


Premature childbirth


Low birth rate


Environmental hazards such as lead exposure


ADHD is a condition that affects children and can last into adulthood. 7.4% of college freshman in the United States were found to have ADHD, according to a poll (Converse et al., 2020). Adults, too, are affected by ADHD, according to one report. Converse et al. (2020) found that stimulant therapies are helpful for adult patients in a meta-analysis of RCTs. Medication, on the other hand, is not always preferred because it is ineffective and can be overused. As a result, nonpharmacological treatment methods are the preferred and desired technique of treatment. Mind-body techniques could be used in conjunction with stimulant drugs as a supplemental therapy.




To determine if a kid or adolescent has ADHD, numerous steps must be completed. Although there is no one test to identify ADHD, it can be ruled out with a medical checkup that includes hearing and vision exams (Adhd-institute, 2021). ADHD can be diagnosed utilizing a checklist for assessing ADHD symptoms and gathering information from teachers and parents about the child or adolescent. ADHD is best treated with a mix of medication and behavior therapy once it has been diagnosed. Patients and their families may have a say in what works best. Close monitoring, making changes as needed along the way, and follow-ups are all essential components of the best treatment strategies.


Non-pharmacological therapies should be employed for people with ADHD, according to experts. Educational, social, psychological, behavioral, and lifestyle interventions are examples of non-pharmacological treatments. These interventions can be tweaked to reflect both the most troubling symptoms of ADHD at different stages of growth as well as an individual’s level of knowledge (Adhd-institute, 2021). Non-pharmacological treatments for ADHD include the following:


Parent-led behavioral interventions, neurofeedback, classroom-led behavioral interventions, and cognitive behavioral therapy for people with ADHD are all examples of behavioral therapy (Adhd-institute, 2021).


Psychoeducation entails informing persons with ADHD, their teachers, and their families about the condition. There are also group education sessions and clinical consultations included (Adhd-institute, 2021).


Exercise and diet—this entails making dietary modifications as well as boosting physical activity.


Parent-led behavioral therapy treats basic symptoms of ADHD by combining behavior management strategies with unique treatment features (Adhd-institute, 2021). Behavioral treatment in the classroom is administered in real-life events within the required framework (Adhd-institute, 2021). In the classroom, for example, children and adolescents struggle with connecting with classmates and adhering to norms; as a result, classroom teachers might provide interventions. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of self-instructional training that can be done in a group or one-on-one setting. This aids in the development of a thoughtful attitude to thinking and behavior in people with ADHD. Psychoeducation is the process of providing knowledge about ADHD to patients and others who care about them. Neurofeedback entails computer-based activities that provide feedback on attention levels in order to recommend the best behavioral training strategy (Adhd-institute, 2021).


As a result, non-pharmacological treatments for ADHD are the best because they do not have the same negative effects as drugs. Individuals may have side effects such as stomachaches, headaches, and irritability as a result of stimulants. When it comes to managing ADHD symptoms, medication is insufficient and must be coupled with non-pharmacological treatment. Evidence-based behavioral treatments, such as behavioral peer interventions and behavioral classroom management, are strongly suggested for children and adolescents with ADHD, according to Chen et al., (2019). These treatments, on the other hand, are especially advised for children under the age of six.


Non-pharmacological treatments create more opportunities for conversation between caregivers, parents, and children. This strengthens their bond and improves the treatment’s effectiveness (Chen et al., 2019). Non-pharmacological therapy, on the other hand, are quite expensive for many people with ADHD, and they require a large level of family involvement. Furthermore, issues such as variances in non-pharmacological therapy for ADHD based on the trainer’s experience and a lack of safe and effective confirmed prescribing patterns make the technique unpopular with many patients (Chen et al., 2019). As a result, this study will add to the body of knowledge about the use of non-pharmacological therapy to treat ADHD.


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