The innovation of biological nanocomposite
(Luochang Hu Chuck ID.81869)
Development of nanocomposites has propelled to an interesting place due to advancements in the properties of nanotechnology within the composite markets despite the technological issues and cost challenges persist. Biological nanocomposites exist in a variety of natural substance such as shell, bone, and wood showing their mechanical properties, which belongs to Bio-nanocomposite (Gong, et al., 2015). For the past few decades the Biological non-composites have not been recognized as an important material in the field of nanocomposites. However, currently, the biological nanocomposite has been utilized widely in our modern society, which has had the close scrutiny of scientists and engineers in recent years. Nanocomposites are currently being used in a number of applications and fields that are being developed. The innovation of Biological Nanocomposite has been designed for improving the efficiency of work, and saving energy.
The main objective of this paper is to review the innovation of biological nanocomposites as well as advancement in bio nanocomposites in terms of properties, preparation and application. The paper will also focus on the benefits of biological nanocomposite application within different fields.
Ideally, the nanocomposite is considered as a solid material that comprises of phases dimensions and other equal distances between the various phases within the structure (Niska et al., 2014). During the last few years the bio-nanocomposite has changed into a term assigned for the nanocomposites that involve the naturally occurring biopolymer mixed with inorganic moiety of not less than one nanometer scale. Therefore, Biological nanocomposites mean the combination of biological and biological nanocomposite. Rehman (2009) states that Bio-nanocomposites are Bio-based performance and nanocomposite materials are polymeric materials produced by or from plants, microorganisms or other bioprocesses and which are by specific functionality based on nanostructure of materials derived from self-organization. The main objective of investigating biological nanocomposite encompasses two fields, which deal with the biological problems, such as minimally invasive surgery whereby doctors are able to various techniques in operating with less damage being made on the body rather than using open surgery, and manufacturing materials where many manufacturers are relying on nanotechnology in making various products using various manufacturing processes.
The properties of nanotechnology have resulted to nanocomposite being utilized widely in manufacturing process (Niska et al., 2014). There are over half of advanced and international manufacturing companies are using nanotechnology to produce consumer goods with strengthening their physical and chemical properties or shrink their manufacturing cost (Naito, Yokoyama, Hosokawa and Nogi, 2018). For instance, Nano steel is a new kind of nanomaterial, which is lighter than traditional steels, and strong enough to undertake the automakers’ strength from thinner gauges, so that the weight of cars will be saved. The Nano steel has the leading Nano structured steel material design used in automotive manufacturing solutions (Hovorun et al., 2017). The Nano steel is hard enough such that it can serve as an indurative conjunction between different part of components.
Relatively, Koçak and Karasu (2018) investigated a new kind of steel that contains nanocomposites, which allows them to make thinner gauge sheet, lighter beams and plates. In addition, not only the weight of this steel is as same as aluminum, but also it has lower cost as producing it. For instance, A-pillars which are vertical pillars that are near the car window in a vertical position to support the vehicle are made of nanocomposite materials. In comparison, previous fat A-pillars can partially block your pedestrians and horizon. However, for the Nano steel, the A-pillar is much thinner than previous pillars, which provide wider views and safety structures.
Mesocoat has developed a nanocomposite coating called CermaClad™, which can be applied to pipes used in oil industries. The advantage of this pipe is that it has longer duration of using. The production process of nanoparticles in pipes is faster and lower temperature is required than using conventional techniques. As result, the oil companies reduce their cost by producing this new material with equal corrosion resistance.
Considerably, nanotechnology has made large contributions to the field of medical care. A type of delivery tumor-killing agent called tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) to cancer tumor, which is one treatment under development involves targeted chemotherapy. The gold nanoparticle carries TNF with Thiol-derivatized polyethylene glycol (PEG-THIOL) in to human immune system. This avoids the nanoparticle to make contact with blood vessel, when it flows.
In detail, The National Institute of Health (NIH) is funding research at eight Nanomedicine Development Centers (2005). The research indicates that, TNF carried by nanocomposites tends to accumulate in cancer tumors, without accumulating in other tissues, which reduces the negative impact on healthy cells as much as possible. At the same time, there are others method helping us to kill cancer, such as starving the cancer cells, and attracted to prostate tumor cells. The second technique is building a bridge between TNF molecules and tumors, hence TNF cures the tumor directly.
Environmental issues have been of great concern in the technological advancement and manufacturing. With the dramatic increase in consumer demands in global market, there has been increased interest on the effects of manufacturing processes and their results of pollution. As a result, Nanocomposite materials are being used in various applications to improve the environment condition, generating the environmental friendly products (less pollution). Nanocomposite are considered as polymers that have been bonded with various non-particles that are used to produce materials that have enhanced properties. The recent level of improvement on nanocomposite has led to innovation of biological nanocomposite materials that have had certain added functional properties which have led to potential development of technologies such as high barrier package, intelligent and active package, Nano-sensors self-cleaning and freshness indicator (Arora, Bhatia, Attri, 2018). The Bio-nanocomposites comprise of biopolymer matrix reinforced with certain nanoparticles that have at least one dimension in the nanometer range.
One application is that silver nanoclusters is a new spice of catalysts used in producing propylene oxide. Propylene oxide is a building block in the creation of several other industrially relevant chemicals, but the current methods of creating it are not efficient. The work opens a new chapter in the field of silver as a catalyst for propene epoxidation. To serve as a manufacturing catalyst, the working process will be speeded up, and less polluting byproducts will be produced. Propylene oxide takes part in common materials productions such as propylene glycols for paints, creation of plastic, automotive brake fluid and detergents.
Scientists have been able to develop a green method in the production of propylene oxide (Arora, Bhatia and Attri, 2018). This has been identified as a new class of the silver based catalyst which has been used for the production of more efficient propylene oxide that is considered to be less expensive and environmentally friendly. However, the drawback of this approach has relatively low selectivity or low conversion to propylene oxide leading to release a mass of green housed gases. There are another example of nanocomposites contributing to environment, which can eliminate the organic chemicals. Iron nanoparticles have been important for environmental cleanup. The iron nanoparticles are highly efficient to purify the polluted groundwater consisting of organic solvents. The theory is that the iron nanoparticles spread throughout the body of water firstly, then decompose the organic solvent. It is no doubt that pumping out of water from underground is not required, thus this method is not only reducing the cost, but more effective to clean the underground water.
Ideally, the nanocomposite is considered as a solid material that comprises of phases dimensions and other equal distances between the various phases within the structure. Bio nanocomposite has changed into a term assigned for the nanocomposites that involve the naturally occurring biopolymer mixed with inorganic moiety of not less than one nanometer scale. According to the principle of nanocomposite, reconstructing or rearranging the molecules, some critics anticipate that government should control a degree of nanoscale that allow modification from their materials or structure (Niska, 2014).
The bio nanocomposite is characterized as natural composites that combine high tolerance and resilience toward adaptation, failure, multi-functionality and modularity (Hovorun et al., 2017). They have originally been optimized and designed for the life needs as well as meeting the environmental conditions of the surrounding in order to offer assurance of survival of the respective species that are associated with it. The application of biological molecules in the design of nanocomposite has been guided by two main principles which include the two fundamental biological procedures termed morphogenesis and ontogenesis. Both processes have been considered to have led to the advancement of materials that contain unforeseen properties as well as opening new horizons for improved application levels.
In conclusion, since there are an increasing number of biological nanocomposites growing dramatically, this technology obvious has positive effects on development of society. Not only the medical quality will be improved, leading to longer lifespan to human, but also it will have better manufacturing materials, which reduce the cost of producing and using energy more efficiently. Although, some critics have focused on the negative influence caused by nanocomposites, such as fabricating molecule structures without controls, and a lot of financial resources required. However, the development of nanotechnology is irresistible, because if the scientists or governments can pay more attention to this field, the advantages will outweigh the drawbacks obviously. Later on, human’s society will be boosted to the peak of development.
Word count: 1550 words
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