1. Ms. Joyce is a 52-year-old woman admitted to the COVID-19 unit due to a 5-day history of shortness of breath,

1. Ms. Joyce is a 52-year-old woman admitted to the COVID-19 unit due to a 5-day history of shortness of breath, fever, diarrhea, and sore throat. The patient initially presented to the COVID-19 screening center 2 days ago, at which time she screened positive and was sent to the emergency department (ED) for testing. A nasopharyngeal swab was obtained and sent to the state laboratory for testing. Ms. Joyce’s spouse called 911 this morning when he found her lying on the floor gasping for air. Given Ms. Joyce’s history and recent testing, she is transferred via emergency medical services (EMS) directly to the COVID-19 unit. The patient is lethargic but oriented and reports chest pain on inhalation. She is struggling to speak in full sentences. Ms. Joyce’s vital signs on arrival are heart rate 101 beats/minute, respiratory rate 26 breaths/minute, blood pressure 118/57 mm Hg, temperature 102° F (38.9° C), and oxygen saturation 86% on room air. Due to visitation restrictions, Ms. Joyce’s spouse provides a history over the phone. Mr. Joyce reports that the patient is a cashier at the local grocery store and has been working overtime lately because he cannot work during the pandemic. He states that her symptoms have worsened significantly over the last 3 days. Please answer the following questions: While Ms. Joyce’s COVID-19 test results are pending, what precautions should the health care professional take? Given Ms. Joyce’s vital signs, what direct interventions should be provided? Ms. Joyce’s test results come back positive for COVID-19. Shortly after learning of her results, Ms. Joyce’s condition begins to deteriorate, requiring a non-rebreather (NRB) oxygen mask. Her oxygen saturation is currently 85% on 15 L/min NRB. What next steps must be taken? What are the current pharmacological treatment options for patients who test + for Covid 19? 2. Melissa is a 15-year-old high school student. Over the last week, she had been feeling tired and found it difficult to stay awake in class. By the time the weekend had arrived, she developed a sore throat that made it difficult to eat and even drink. Melissa was too tired to get out of bed, and she said her head ached. On Monday morning, her mother took her to her doctor. Upon completing the physical exam, he told Melissa that the lymph nodes were enlarged in her neck, and she had a fever. He ordered blood tests and told Melissa he thought she had mononucleosis, a viral infection requiring much bed rest. Please answer the following questions: Innate and adaptive immune defenses work collectively in destroying invasive microorganisms. What is the interaction between macrophages and T lymphocytes during the presentation of antigen? Melissa’s illness is caused by a virus. Where are type I interferons produced, and why are they important in combating viral infections? Humoral immunity involves the activation of B lymphocytes and production of antibodies. What are the general mechanisms of action that make antibodies a key component of an immune response?

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