Read the material below from the slide for question 1


Read the material below from the slide for question 1




Cyber Crime and Cyber Terrorism
Fourth Edition
Chapter 4

Introduction: What is a Hacker?
•There is no universal agreement to the meaning of the word
-The word hacker originally referred to an unorthodox problem
solver and master programmer.
-The popular consensus is that hackers are bad people who do
bad things.
-Hackers have established their own set of values;
these values often conflict with the laws and values of the
greater society.
Who and What is a Hacker? (1 of 2)
•The hacker population represents individuals with a broad
spectrum of motivations, skills, and activities.
-A lot of hacker activity is illegal, such as breaking into
government and military systems.
-However, not all hackers engage in illegal activity.
-Hacking can be a legitimate and legal action.
-The key is authorization.
-Researchers suggest there is no real consensus as to what
constitutes a hacker.
Who and What is a Hacker? (2 of 2)
•The media portrays hackers as gaining authorized access to
computer systems.
-This is due in part to the range of activities hackers engage in.
▪Phone Phreaking
-Has changed, but is still an important interest in the
hacker community.



Today’s Hackers
•Software cracking involves overcoming copy protection devices in electronic
media to copy and distribute them.
-1980s called warez or cracks
-Video games, movies, music, and television
•Warez groups today intersect the hacker community today and support the
efforts of hackers through the creation of P2P networking technology that can
be used to share files.
•Writing or programming malware software such as viruses and Trojan horse
programs is a growing computer crime problem and is directly tied to hackers.
•Social engineering introduced by phone phreaks.
The Media’s Point of View: The Danger of Hackers
•The media focuses on the danger of hackers.
-The media publishes several worst-case scenarios for hacking
or network intrusion, such as the alteration of medical records.
-However, there has never been a recorded instance of a
hacker corrupting medical records and killing a person.
Law Enforcement’s Point of View: Illegal Actions
and Damage
•Law enforcement focuses on the illegal actions of hackers and the
-When a hacker does not have permission to use a computer or
network, the action is called system intrusion.
•Federal status make it a crime to knowingly use false credentials
to access devices, illegally access or damage a “protected”
•Intent of the intruder is important.



The Hacker’s Point of View: Prosocial Hacking
•The hacker subculture defines prosocial hacking and differentiates
its activities from computer crime.
-Hackers understand the crime of hacking as a positive action
under the “higher” goals supported by the subculture.
-Considered prosocial because it protects users and ultimately
strengthens Internet security.
Cyber Criminals Versus Hackers
-It is difficult to distinguish hackers from computer criminals.
-The majority of hacker online actions are perfectly legal.
-The distinction between hackers who commit crimes and other
computer criminals rests upon the attitudes with which a hacker
approaches the activities.
-The hacker subculture accepts actions that violate the law.
Cybercriminals and the Insider Threat (1 of 2)
•Cyber criminals who are from inside an organization present the
highest risk for cybercrime and corporate and industrial espionage.
•The criminal definition of an insider threat is a malicious criminal
who has or had legitimate access to an organization’s computing
environment, and has intentionally exceeded or intentionally used
access in a manner that negatively affected the confidentiality,
integrity, or availability of the organization’s information or
information systems.



Cybercriminals and the Insider Threat (2 of 2)
•Insider attack methods:
-Social Engineering
-Authorized use of an organization’s systems
-Bypassing security and control processes
-Comprised accounts
•Common objectives are theft of intellectual property, fraud, and
•CERT Insider Threat Database
•A cracker is a type of malicious hacker.
•There is no final authority on who determines when or
how a hacker becomes a cracker.
•There is no clear way to cross the line back to non-
malicious hacker,either.
•Most hackers claim to benefit the systems they intrude
upon because they do not destroy data and alert system
administrators to security flaws.
Script Kiddies
•Script kiddies are often described as a scourge or pestilence on
the Internet.
•Script kiddies do not have enough skill to write their own programs
or explore new exploits themselves. Instead they download
attacks programs.
•Script kiddies seem to be primarily concerned with bragging and
attacking each other or anyone else who draws their wrath.



White Hat Hackers
•A “White hat hacker” is an ethical hacker.
•Forms of white hat hacking include:
-Software testing by manufacturers
-Independent verification of software function and security
-Reverse engineering
•Tiger teams are teams of hackers hired to “test” the defenses of
an organization.
Gray Hat Hackers
•A “gray hat hacker” is someone who typically behaves in
an ethical manner, but sometimes violates accepted
•Accepted ethics include:
-Do not profit from intrusion.
-Do not intentionally harm a computer system.
-Attempt to inform a system administrator of security flaws.
-Hackers are not bad guys; computer criminals are bad guys.
Black Hat Hackers
-A “black hat hacker” is a cracker or malicious hacker
-Only network intrusion and other “hacker-like” activities
committed in conflict with hacker ethics qualify as black
hat activities.
-Black hat hackers are quite open about their ideas,
opinions, and technology.
-“Black Hat” Annual Conference in Las Vegas



•Hacktivists are hackers that have come together to
challenge the treatment of their peers by the government.
•The common characteristic of hacktivists is the use of
hacker skills and attitudes to convey a political message.
-Electronic Disturbance Theater
The Origins and History of Hacking
•The word hack derives from the Massachusetts Institute of
-In a classical sense, a hacker is someone who has mastered
the art of programming to the point that he or she can simply sit
down and “hack” in a program that works.
-To be called a hacker was a compliment.
Hacking Changes
•The core ideals of the hacker culture came about in the 1960s.
-During this time, hackers believed that information should be
free to all to understand how things works and can be
-The hacker ethic was documented by Levy in his book
•Phreaking allowed individuals to make free calls to anyone in the
world by controlling telephone system switches.



The Criminalization of Hacking (1 of 2)
•From the 1950s through the 1970s there were no laws about
-This changed in the 1980s.
-More individuals now had access to computers.
-Modem technology connected computers (networks).
-Computer networks provided access to people outside of
business and university settings.
The Criminalization of Hacking (2 of 2)
•During the 1980s, the media portrayed hackers as criminal.
-The move War Games introduced the general public to the
unexplored world of hacking.
-The Hacker Manifesto was released. This text railed against
adults, law, enforcement, and schools, evoking the angst of
young hackers everywhere.
-This text provided support for the increasingly criminal nature of
hacker activities, thus affecting outsiders perceptions of
Challenges and Changes in Hacking
•Criminal hacking emerged in the 1980s and 1990s.
-The previous generation of hackers disputed the criminalization
of the word “hacker.”
-However, they were unable to reclaim the word.
-The growth of the internet and personal computers brought
about unskilled hackers and script kiddies.



The Hacker Subculture
•The social world of computer hackers is shaped by five social
•There is no simple dichotomy between hackers and computer
-Hackers possess a deep connection to computers and
-The more time hackers spend familiarizing themselves
with technology, the more their skill level increases.
-Technology permeated the language of hackers in the
1970s and 1980s. The hacker dialect is called eleet
(‘leet) speek or k-rad.
•The hacker identity is built upon a devotion to learn and
understand technology.
•Most hackers are self-taught.
•Hackers in the subculture today do not mentor individuals in
hacking skills.
•Most hackers do not have many real world relationships with other
•Hackers demonstrate their knowledge through challenges and
competitions held at conventions.



•Commitment is important because individuals must constantly
study and practice hacking techniques in order to improve and
•A commitment to learning and understanding computers and
technology is needed to discover what topics a hacker finds truly
•Continuous changes and improvements in technology compound
the length of time required to learn.
•Categorization involves the ways individuals create and define the
hacker identity.
•Commitment, knowledge, and technology affect the way
individuals construct their definition and meaning of the term
•Many individuals argue that there are attitudinal components that
define a hacker, such as a certain state of mind or spirit.
•Hackers regularly discuss the legality of hacking and information
sharing in the real world and in cyberspace.
•Law emphasizes the influence of legal codes in structuring how
hackers relate to individuals in and out of hacker subculture.
•Legal matters are regularly addressed at hacker conferences.


Answer th
question 1 Explain why hackers do not consider themselves to be criminals. How can someone break the law, but not feel deviant?

do not copy other answers and provide cite.



question 2: Collecting Mobile Device Issues



What are some good ways an examiner can speak with the device owner to get the device unlocked if it is locked, and to get them to allow the examiner to look through their personal device? Why or why not?




Question 3


Please provide your thoughts on the following statement.
The One-Time Pad is a provable secure symmetric cipher. However, it is highly impractical for most applications because the key length has to equal the message length.





Please provide complete thoughts/citation and do not copy other answers

Complete Answer:

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