Reading is defined as a process of constructing meaning

Instructions: Answer each item by writing the letter of the best answer and explain it. Number 1 is an example on how you will write your explanation. (The bold texts are the answers, I only need explanation for each item. Thank you!)

1. Reading is defined as a process of constructing meaning through the interactions of several important factors that make each reading act unique. What are these factors?

A. Reader’s language competence, organization of the text, and purpose for reading

B. Reader’s existing knowledge, information suggested by the written language, and the context of the reading situation

C. Reader’s decoding ability, writer’s cultural background, and the pattern of organization

D. Reader’s motivation to learn, writer’s expression of ideas, and the context

Explanation: To answer this question, you must recall some reading theoretical knowledge. It asks for the factors affecting the reading process. When you compare choices A, C, and D, you will notice that they are only part of general ideas contained in choice B. Although the three are partially correct on some points, it is choice B that provides a general term for all the options in this item. Hence, B is the best answer.
2. Marc Aaron has been exposed to a rich language environment because of mature adult models he interacts with at home. As a result, he has come to have a firm grasp of word meanings in various situations.

How would this exposure help him learn to read?

A. His comprehension will not be affected by word knowledge.

B. His listening vocabulary is richer than his reading vocabulary.

C. The print materials he reads will be different from his listening vocabulary.

D. His knowledge of words in listening situations will help him comprehend the print materials.


3. Teacher Merry Ruth includes 4 known words together with 5 new important words in developing vocabulary knowledge among her students. She chooses these 4 words based on their relationship to the topic and to the new words she is going to introduce.

Which of the following principles of vocabulary instruction is applied by the teacher?

A. Be enthusiastic about content area language.

B. Limit the number of words taught in each unit.

C. Relate new vocabulary words to experiences and concepts that students know.

D. Repeatedly model how to determine a word’s meaning in text materials.


4. The importance of vocabulary instruction in improving comprehension has long been recognized. In fact, many teachers use approaches that encourage the understanding of word knowledge in various contexts.

Which of the following is NOT an appropriate approach for vocabulary instruction?

A. Wide reading

B. Direct Instruction

C. Superficial instruction

D. Mastery Approach


5. One principle in vocabulary instruction suggests that concepts be taught in semantically – related clusters. How is this best applied in the classroom?

A. Let students match words in column A with their definitions in column B.

B. Present vocabulary advance organizers.

C. Conduct semantic feature analysis.

D. Use textual context as clues.


6. The application part of the lesson provides the students with a chance to respond affectively to the learning gained in the classroom. The following are commendable lesson endings EXCEPT

A. Writing insights on reflection journals

B. Linking lessons to real-life contexts

C. Responding creatively using multiple intelligences

D. Answering questions for convergent thinking


7. Content-based instruction integrates a particular content with language teaching aims. It is based on the underlying principle that language learning succeeds when lessons use the target language in meaningful, contextualized forms to acquire information and knowledge.

Which of the following violates this CBI principle?

A. Teachers focus on language structures.

B. Teachers allow multiple opportunities to understand and use the language.

C. Teachers engage students in a relatively anxiety-free environment.

D. Teachers prioritize the meaning-making rather than the language form.


8. CBI is also based on the principle of Whole Language Approach. Which of the following does NOT characterize the Whole Language Approach?

A. It takes place in meaningful contexts.

B. It happens as naturally as learners walk and talk.

C. It starts from language aims taken from the students’ textbook.

D. It provides social, meaning-based, purposeful, enjoyable activities.


9. The construction of meaning and the negotiation of its sense appropriately describe the pedagogical aims in reading. To accomplish these, students need the following comprehension strategies EXCEPT

A. Organizational Strategies             C. Elaboration Strategies

B. Preparational Strategies               D. Decoding Strategies


10. Metacognition is one’s awareness about own thinking. Students can be taught the Metacognitive strategies for autonomous learning. Which of the following does NOT reflect a Metacognitive strategy?

A. Regulating one’s thoughts                        C. Checking one’s understanding

B.  Distinguishing fact and opinion            D. Repairing comprehension problems


11. A technique for generating a pool of ideas in order to eventually select the most appropriate ideas for use in writing or some other creative task

A. Delayed copying                      C. Dictocomp

B. Precis writing                            D. Brainstorming


12. The following are different aspects of a subject that a writer considers in cubing as a technique in generating ideas EXCEPT

A. Describing                                 C. Comparing

B. Listing                                       D.  Arguing for or against it


13. Ms. Lontoc, an English teacher, meets with her students individually to discuss revision options on a draft, the strategies the students is using to write and revise the work, and the students’ progress as a writer. Ms. Lontoc is doing __________

A. Enculturation                              C.  Conferencing

B. Dialogic thinking                         D. Collaborative learning


14. The course of action taken when a person follows one step after another in order to develop a piece of writing, where each step needs to be completed before moving on to the next step

A. Recursive writing                       C.  Rethinking

B. Linear writing                            D.  Drafting


15. An approach to teaching writing that involves the teacher and student in working on strategies for analyzing text, generating ideas, drafting, revising and proofreading

A. Process-oriented                        C.  Reader-based

B. Product-oriented                         D.  Writer-based


16. Important to a writing workshop are the following EXCEPT

A. Books                                        C.  Tutor

B. Internet                                      D.  Paper and pen


17. The line of reasoning of a written product in terms of its approach and modes used throughout

A. Topic sentence                         C.  Negotiation of meaning

B. Purpose                                     D. Rhetorical structure


18. Ms. Cruz collects a variety of samples of her students’ work produced for different assignments and purposes. She uses her collection in assessing her students’ writing across time. Ms. Cruz is using _________.

A. Authentic texts                           C.  Topic-based guidelines

B. Chain stories                               D.  Portfolios


19. Effective evaluation should provide the following kinds of information to the writer EXCEPT

A. To whom is the writer writing for

B. Does the writer use language accurately and appropriately?

C. Is the content relevant to the task?

D. Is the content clearly expressed?


20. Writing for a pen-pal reflects this approach to L2 composition

A. Controlled                                 C.  Model

B. Communicative                        D. English for Academic Purposes

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