Thirds Papers: Degree of Belief|Popper

Notably, there are varying groups of knowers that offer complicated scenarios, beliefs, and knowledge about a set of world’s understanding which has impacted the dynamics of inquiry and belief. The opinion comes in varying degrees which is termed as the degrees of belief or credence. Karl Popper believed that human knowledge tends to develop through falsification[1]. Ideally, falsifiability is considered as a contention that for any theory to have belief or credence it must be innately disprovable before it can become acknowledged as a scientific theory or hypothesis. false. However, rather than the use of vagueness and uncertainty, the degrees of belief can be used to turn possible extensions and applications of a theory.

Popper’s falsification methodology and probability

According to Popper, an idea or theory shouldn’t be pronounced scientific unless it could, in principle be proven false. He held that for a scientific theory to be genuine and be confirmed, there must be some level of disconfirmation of the observations that are at all times possible matter how many confirmations observations have been designed and made. This means that rather than consider that a theory is right, it must be incrementally linked to disconfirming evidence despite the number of well-designed experiments[2]. This means for an idea or theory to be proven true there must be some level of uncertainty that proves it. Pooper tries to argue that a theory has to have the uncertainty that is used to prove the factual certainty. Rather than falsification of scientific theories, the scientific arguments can be made highly probable, highly confirmed or verified through facts to raise the degree of belief.

Ideally, the falsifiability criterion in the beliefs of science should be reformed if we consider belief as every time as a notion of degree. Belief as an idea of degree means that it is possible to have reasonable assumptions through having high degrees of belief rather than uncertainty. Arguably, the notion of belief relies upon the available fact. The confidence or belief that an individual has towards an idea formally represents the strength of the specific proposition. Belief means the approval of a certain statement, proposition, statement or truth on the basis of evidence. Thus, the fact that there is evidence, the degree of belief on a specific scientific theory should not be defined by falsifiability.

For instance, somebody might claim that the world is younger than the scientists claim and that it was shaped to look as if it was of age through false remains. Ideally, the claim is unfalsifiable because the theory can never be shown to be false. If evidence of fossils, arguments and geological data about the nature of the compounds within the ozone were offered to such a person, they could refute the argument by saying that the evidence offered was fabricated that way and is not valid. Importantly, falsifiability argument says nothing about inherent correctness or validity[3]. It is the only the minimum trait required of a claim to allow the engagement in a scientific manner. The idea that no theory is completely correct until shown by both supporting evidence and proven to be falsifiable to be accepted as true is invalid.

While proper continues to hold that it is not possible for a person to justify claims that a certain theory is true, he continued to defend the objective probability to explain the reality. Popper proses his through of propensity as an alternate for the comparative frequency of probability protected through the logical positivist[4]. With regards to the simple versions of his theory, the possibility of an occasion type E can be considered as a comparative frequency of e. The main alternatives within the theory are the concerns of subjective and objective theories of probability with regards to the claims that need to be comprehended as claims around the strength of proof or the level of belief towards a particular proposal.  Like all other defenders, poppers argument concerns the subjective and logical theories that have been incorrectly interpreted about the scientific claims on probability and the evidence available as compared to the external world under investigation.

Degrees of belief

Varying degrees of belief rule out the need for falsification of a certain theory to prove that it is true[5]. Belief has been observed to come in varying quantitative versions which are the degrees of belief. The degree of belief is built through the logical view of a certain theory. This means that the logical probability can be featured as a degree of belief. The logical probability is considered as the degree of belief which is objective and rationale to hold any given evidence available[6].  This view considers probability as a representation of the private assessment of an individual of how likely something is based on the evidence available to them. This idea has faced pout some hostility that had been built by the falsification methodology which tried to argue that all theories are true in the face of failed predictions.

Ideally, one can hold a specific degree of belief such as the logical view of the probability that has been characterized by continued efforts in testing theories against experiences. Showing reasonable beliefs through logical views is more transparent rather than the use of falsification. From this simple argument, it is clear that we can acquire the idea of personal belief degrees that are more palatable than for those that think probabilities should be falsifiable. Relying on subjective probabilities helps to learn from experience hence solving the main problems for a certain event or idea.

Through probability as a degree of belief, there tends to be an extension of logic that enables one to understand what follows from the given evidence[7]. While investigating the relations between different degrees of belief it is important to understand the degree of relation unbeliefs. Belief is considered as the state of mind through which a person tends to think and perceive something to be the way it is with or without any empirical evidence to prove that the idea or the thing has factual certainty. Thus, this is a mental representation that a certain attitude is considered to be true. Arguably, to have an assumption that a belief is a link between an object of belief and an epistemic means at a specific period is common. Objects of belief are propositions and possible worlds that are expressed as truth conditions. An additional developed view is the possible truth that is covered by the propositions aligned at an individual at a specific period. Centered propositions are essential in creating self-locating beliefs which are different from falsifications.

Poppers propensity theory of probability

This theory spreads beyond the substantial world where popper contends that it can be utilized in the interpretation of the entitlements about the prospect that arises in both extents of everyday life and science. Theorist who adopt this kind of thinking tend to think of probability as a disposition or a tendency that yields a given kind of physical situation to lead to an outcome of a certain kind. This theory argues that probabilities are impartial claims over the mind free external world and that there is possibility of having a particular case for non-recurring occasions. Popper has proposed this theory as an irregular of the comparative theories of probability that have been defended by rational positivists. As with other supporters of the frequency theories, Popper argues that independent or coherent theories inappropriately deduce scientific entitlements over prospect as being about scientific investigations and the proof available rather than the outside world being investigated. Popper claims that the old frequency notions fail to justify distinct instance of probabilities.

Subjective probability

Subjective probability is considered as the probabilities that come from the perceptions and judgments of an individual judgment of the happening of an event[8].  This means that the propositions are subjective. They differ from one individual to another because they are considered to be subjective on the basis of an individual belief, past experience or opinion or the assignment of varying degrees of probability to a particular outcome.  Despite having no numerical calculations, this can be illustrated through P (X)= degree of belief that X is true

Probability where calculated or subjective cannot tell the exact that something will occur not occur. The theory of subjective probability is the best-developed reason for the degrees of belief[9]. As a consequence, there are much more materials that can be presented in this case about the degrees of belief as compared to other accounts. Ideally, the subjective probability is the kind of probability that is derived from an individual’s judgment over an exact outcome that is likely to arise. The subjective probability fails to take into formal designs but only mirrors on the matter’s past experience and opinions.

Poppers Epistemology “Without a knowing subject”

Epistemology without knowing was proposed by Popper who stated that epistemology should be identified with scientific knowledge which is recognized with facts in the objective sense. Popper relies epistemology to mean that the scientific knowledge theories and the scientific understanding in the objective sanities indicates all the theories, tentative solutions and problems in the objective sense comprise of matters that are false and things which are neither false nor true. It involves apparently things of which no subject has ever thought.

Bayesian Epistemology

Probability theory is considered important in philosophy because it offers models that are essential in getting a grip about the fundamental problems within a set of information, confirmation, reliability, and coherence[10]. This theory shows how we can justify that degree of beliefs can be used to evaluate the relevance of a theory. There is no single way to view of the Bayesian epistemology instead there are a number of the Bayesian epistemologies. Every view of the Bayesian epistemology is endorsed on the following two principles: The agents have a doxastic attitude that can be important represented by assigning the numerical to claim and the rational requirements that the doxastic attitudes can be shown through the mathematical constraints on the real numerical closely linked to the probability calculus.

In particular, the Bayesian epistemology is used to model the degrees of belief through mathematical probabilities[11]. Ideally, the probability is interpreted subjectively. This section explains the concept of degree of belief beginning with the application of tools to solve certain epistemological issues. The deductive logic is often observed as the logic of the entire rational belief in the sense that the agent has a full set of beliefs that can be termed as first-order suggestions. If the propositions are not logically consistent the agent cannot be considered rational hence, they ought to abandon some of the beliefs. The calculus deductive logic is beneficial in this case because it enables detection of certain inconsistencies that exits according to the set of beliefs.

Rather than uncertainty and the use of falsification, a central concept of the modern epistemology can be used which is evidence. Ideally, something is evidence for a scientific theory or proposition A, something that tends to bring an understanding and the believe that A exists. Probabilistic confirmation offers the theory more credibility. This means that the evidence for the theory is, in turn, the central to reasons and justifications. There are two different concepts of each evidence that need to be kept which are the relative and absolute one. According to the absolute one, E is the evidence for A if and only if the given proposition of E is highly probable than A.  For instance, a perception is absolute in the case whereby the evidence for a certain belief is considered to be highly probable. This comprehension certainly gets some way of using evidence for A even when E has a lower probability. On the other hand, the relative concept of evidence is used as a support of the subject for the rest of the section.

In conclusion, Popper’s work has numerous issues such as propensity theory of probability, epistemology without knowing and falsification methodology that should be changed through the idea of degrees of disbelief that tend to obey the probability calculus and the best theory of rational decision and belief. The use of Bayesian epistemology shows that even if there are two individual’s judgments of the probability of a certain hypothesis, the people have to look into their degrees of belief to satisfy the requirements. The levels of belief are familiar to individuals because they are used to represent the private assessment of an individual based on the available evidence on a particular event.  The levels of belief appeal to our individual arguments according to the probability laws.


Angelini, Pierpaolo, and Antonio Maturo. “On logical aspects of the classification of the subjective probability in decision theory.” EPISTEMOLOGIA 38, no. 2 (2015): 315-326.

Bernays, Paul. “Reflections on Karl Popper’s Epistemology.” In Critical Approaches to Science and Philosophy, pp. 32-44. Routledge, 2017.

Huber, Franz. “Belief and degrees of belief.” In Degrees of belief, pp. 1-33. Springer, Dordrecht, 2009.

Herzberg, Frederik. “Aggregating infinitely many probability measures.” Theory and Decision 78, no. 2 (2015): 319-337.Kopylov, Igor. “Subjective probability, confidence, and Bayesian updating.” Economic Theory 62, no. 4 (2016): 635-658.

Kreps, David. Notes on the Theory of Choice. Routledge, 2018.

Levi, Isaac. “Degrees of belief.” Journal of Logic and Computation 18, no. 5 (2008): 699-719.

Rahman, Shahid, Juan Redmond, and Nicolas Clerbout. “Objective Knowledge and the not Dispensability of Epistemic Subjects. Some remarks on Popper’s notion of objective knowledge.” (2016).

Smart, John Jamieson Carswell. Philosophy and scientific realism. Routledge, 2014.

VERDUGO, Carlos. “Popper’s New Conception of Epistemology.” Karl Raimund Popper une épistémologie sans visage et sans rivage Volume 1: Critique (s), Controverse (s) et Confrontation (s) (2016): 57.


[1] Huber, Franz. “Belief and degrees of belief.” In Degrees of belief, pp. 1-33. Springer, Dordrecht, 2009.

[2] Rahman, Shahid, Juan Redmond, and Nicolas Clerbout. “Objective Knowledge and the not Dispensability of Epistemic Subjects. Some remarks on Popper’s notion of objective knowledge.” (2016).


[3] Smart, John Jamieson Carswell. Philosophy and scientific realism. Routledge, 2014.


[4] VERDUGO, Carlos. “Popper’s New Conception of Epistemology.” Karl Raimund Popper une épistémologie sans visage et sans rivage Volume 1: Critique (s), Controverse (s) et Confrontation (s) (2016): 57.


[5] Bernays, Paul. “Reflections on Karl Popper’s Epistemology.” In Critical Approaches to Science and Philosophy, pp. 32-44. Routledge, 2017.


[6] Herzberg, Frederik. “Aggregating infinitely many probability measures.” Theory and Decision 78, no. 2 (2015): 319-337.


[7] Kopylov, Igor. “Subjective probability, confidence, and Bayesian updating.” Economic Theory 62, no. 4 (2016): 635-658.


[8] Angelini, Pierpaolo, and Antonio Maturo. “On logical aspects of the classification of the subjective probability in decision theory.” EPISTEMOLOGIA 38, no. 2 (2015): 315-326.


[9] Angelini, Pierpaolo, and Antonio Maturo. 315-326.


[10] Kreps, David. Notes on the Theory of Choice. Routledge, 2018.


[11] Levi, Isaac. “Degrees of belief.” Journal of Logic and Computation 18, no. 5 (2008): 699-719.


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