Harold Innis is one of the major figures in the communication theory. His main focus is the social history of communication which he believes is the relative stability of culture which depends on the proportion and balance of their media. For Innis, (2008) a major social change is found where there is the development of communication media. This means that to him communication media and development of media have led to the control and organization of information. Harlods perspective is reliant on the examination of how media has risen and grown in the first place. So as to understand any medium, there is a need to attend not only up to the physical characteristics but also in the way which it is institutionalized and employed. Innis sees a link between technology and society and how they have influenced one another. According to Innis (2008), certain situations and social forms have encouraged the development of various media thus the media are operating within the existing situations.
Harold has offered an essential insight on the historical effect of communication technologies on the mode of perceiving, thinking and behaving as well as on their cultural and social effects. Technological changes have driven historical change and constructed reality. Technologies in media and communication are the main focus for Harold. They have mediated the fall and rise of monopolies of power and shape the interactions and controls of knowledge within the society. Innis has argued that modern communication technology such as the printing technology has contributed to bias in people’s social organization and perceptions. For instance, this has led to a change from the time binding to the space binding culture. For Innis, the dominant communication technologies have influenced the consciousness of the society through the concept of space and time media which have brought about the imbalance of power and instability in the society.
The large part of the online articles and news are now readily available to individuals through the internet. Consumers have been able to easily and efficiently select articles that have a wide variety of information. Ideally, technology has led to new communication media are the new publishers have bridged the information gap between the citizens and the world (Dutwin and Lavrakas, 2016). Digital technologies have impacted information and knowledge.
The disruption of truth and knowledge has drastically changed due to technological change. Major technological developments have turned out to be the revolutionary ways of distributing communication and information. The inventions of televisions, mobile phones, and the internet have converted the ways of expression and communication of truth. These revolutions have shifted the world of information, knowledge, and truth resulting in transformative impacts on the society. For instance, there are limits for each article printed and the accounts individuals follow on the article. However, with the increased technological advancement and the internet, this has led to contrasting opinions due to people who choose to follow users who share the same information in a more critical way. This has contributed to the overflow of fake news and misinformation which have lacked factual and unreliable information.
The rise of fake news and the disruption of truth and knowledge have increased due to the narratives that have been spread by humans and bots online challenging the platforms and publishers. The rising speed, efficiencies, and reach of the internet and the increased technology have predicted the future information landscape whereby fake information has crowded the sensible and reliable information. The power of the internet has led to a change in beliefs in the society which have affected the truth of information and have also contributed to fake information over the internet. This is why some of the governments fear the internet since they offer more information that makes the truth known impacting the knowledge of the citizens by exposing the truth.
The internet has become a global means of communication whereby people have been connected to each other easily. This has brought about the change in social communication which is essential in everyday life. The internet has offered a broad variety of communicative possibilities. For instance, the telephone has changed individuals live whereby they can share disruptive information. This has been used to negatively influence the social attitudes and behaviors of people and transmitting commercial and private information to others. Some people believe that communication technologies have been effective since they enable the exchange of education. Ideally, through the internet people have been able to connect to each other and communicate or pass information as compared to before (Perrin, 2015). This his has been due to the changes and development of the media communication technologies which have improved the efficiency of communication. However, the internet has influenced society making people more stupid since it has brought about cultural disturbance and social change.
The internet has turned the existence of individual’s upside down. This is because it has been able to revolutionize communications through social media networks, instant messaging, watching television and making orders. Despite the fact that the media technologies have acted ways of helping connect with others, they have actually functioned as distractors and geared not in helping individuals find what they actually have to know or ensure that they train for understanding and thought. For instance, social media networking sites have made people to do more while having a less understanding of what they are doing which has increased the dependence on others.
The media economic are considered as the economic practices and policies of media companies and disciplines. The media economics is concerned with the changing economic powers that constraint and direct the choices of practitioners, managers and other stakeholders that take part in decision making across the mass media. Media economics puts emphasis on economic concepts that have distinct application within media industries such as mergers, corporate media, as well as the public policy within the industry structure (Doyle, 2013). In the case of economic for the mass media, it is evident that all the media firms are involved in somehow packaging, producing and distribution of the media content. In mass media, it deals more with the production of printed media such as magazines and newspapers. The internet has become an essential driver towards media convergence and has connected communication and information technologies. Despite the fact that internet media has shared some characteristics several features
The most common economic structure for the mass media is Oligopoly whereby there are few firms that have dominated the industry. Mass media relies on direct and indirect payments where the consumer pays for the media product. The fundamental shift from the traditional mass media to internet economics has been the minuscule price for gaining an online space as compared to the price to print the mass communication media (Albarran, 2008). Relatively, the internet has shifted the way the companies advertised in the traditional media bringing about a change in the advertising models where there are high profile web pages which have to enable the firms to gain status on the internet.
Globalized media is simply meaning digital media and technology where communications and information can reach thousands of individuals in spite of their cultural and geographical distances. It has been stated that the globalization of media will lead to the decentralization of power as well as allow more bottom-up control. McLuhan offers two important concepts that are related to tasks of globalization to the national culture. These concepts include: the medium is the message and the concept of the global village. Globalization of media shrinks the concepts of the distance between the various culture through efficiently reducing the time taken to cross the physical gap between them. On the other hand, it removes the relations that control everyday lives in society from local notions to become global ones. This brings about a threat to the national culture as they try to create a globalized village.
Globalized media has brought about the production of knowledge which is democratized and decentralized. With such decentralization, globalized media has prevented dominant authorities from the management of the flow of information. With regards to this, new technologies in the globalized media have allowed media economy globalization compressing time, relocating information, making spatial relations and undermining the duty of the nation states. This is because the global citizens have been able to participate in a shared culture which has undermined the previous uniform, hierarchical or individualized techniques in an ideological control. Carey (2008) states that there are tensions that exist between localization and globalization in terms of media.
Globalized media has brought about an intensification of universal social relations which have connected distant locations in such a manner that local happening is controlled by activities occurring miles away. This means that globalized media and the ability to communicate from a distance has brought about a new quality of social space on that is effectively distance less and non-territorial. For instance, in Canada, like any other country, it is being influenced by the concept of globalized media through technology and the internet which have impacted the economic, cultural life and political life within the country. The dangers of cultural expression, democracy as well as tradition in the erosion of power structures, national and local traditions. In Canada, 50 percent of the music played, 90 percent of the movies and 75 percent of the magazines are American. These will eventually erode the traditions and culture of the Canadians who will tend to adopt the American way of life. This clearly shows how globalized media has brought about risks to national cultures.
As the internet plays a greater role in campaigns, governance as well as activism. Individuals have utilized digital democracy to primarily benefit from technological resources (McChesney, 2015). Ideally, the internet has offered tow varying influences on political participation. Citizens that tend to engage in political activity via offline have increasingly participated in online political activities. Ideally, technology and the internet have been considered to merely harbor impressions of openness. In the past, it is evident that politicians could only be able to reach a public that is relying on established media such as radio, newspapers, and televisions or through posters and meeting people in the streets. Before the rise of the internet, oral written tradition such as magazines and newspapers as well as posters were used to influence citizens. These were heavily relied upon to change the perceptions of the citizens as well as communicate to them. Through the internet, there has been a shift in the ability to reach people without the limitations of public gatherings, strikes, and writing of letters (Street, 2010). The internet has also created a new section where there is a group of people that can actively participate in the political process. Before the internet, this was only offered to private groups. The politicians have been able to use the internet to ensure contact with their supporters as well as meet new supporters. For instance, this has been possible through the candidate’s websites where they are able to communicate with the citizen or come together to pressure the government. From the perspectives of the individual citizens and the politicians, it is evident that the internet has changed the way people have participated in politics through enabling them to break from their historical perspectives (Nesbitt-Larking, 2007). In this case, the internet has allowed individuals to gain access to political powers and the political process in a manner that was not seen before the evolution of the internet.
Canada has proved to be one of the countries that have well invested in their media sector. In their broadcasting sector, a government-funded broadcaster exists as the Radio-Canada which runs programs in both Radio and Television sector in both English and French language. Due to its slightly lower position in the dominant market, it receives huge doses of support from their government during any of their film products (Wilson & Hoechsmann, 2019). The production of magazine, television, and newspaper remain to be for Profit Corporation where they earn through advertising and other sales-related revenues. The regulations put in place to govern media ownership and the state of media implies that the organization should show “equal rights”. It also goes ahead to further explain that the linguistic duality and multicultural and multiracial nature society and the special place of aboriginal people should enjoy their shows equally as much.
There is a split between public and private ownership of Canadian television broadcasting. In total Canada has 130 original television stations that operate across the country. The use of cable television is very common among Canadians. This has provided for a rise of many distributors companies that have to acquire licenses for distribution from the CRTC after meeting a certain requirement. In most of the cities in Canada, there is at least one major cable company that serves the area. If an area has more than one cable company’s restrictions are put in place to dictate the range and radius that one cable can distribute and where the other company can also distribute. This is set up by having a specific geographical division license and giving a monopoly to each company as shown by their license of ownership (Winseck, 2019). There are actually two major companies that offer direct satellite delivery to people who want an alternative to the cableway of life.
Bias in media communication is considered as the bias of news producers and journalist in the selection of stories and events that are reported as well as their coverage (Innis 2008). The term bias in media communication has been used to imply bias whereby the standards of media communication are contravened. The most commonly discussed bias is whereby a certain media channel is used to attack a certain. Other forms of bias include corporate bias, advertising bias, and sensationalism. One of the most prevalent biases in media is political bias which has featured most in mass media since its birth following the invention of the print media. For instance, newspapers and other broadcast media have been used in earlier days for propaganda and attack for political parties.
In the modern world, people are turning into the internet as the main source of global news. With this new form of media, journalistic slant and bias have still remained prevalent. For instance, when a country is facing political discourse and battle, varying news providers offer varying stories and styles on coverage of how a particular government is dealing with the issue. Most of the Canadian media have been seen to narrow down to left-leaning bias. In most cases, they have failed to include a variety or conservative voice. In North America media and news coverage have been biased towards leftist and progressive agenda on various issues such as abortion, gun control, global warming and considerably do not contain conservative standpoint.
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